There Are Continuous Studies To Find Out All The Reasons Behind Premature Balding

Male Pattern Baldness
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Factors Causing Premature Balding

Premature balding is a problem found in every part of the world. No country, no ethnicity, and no society is entirely free from this universal problem.

But what are the factors that cause this irritating problem? How much do we know about the conditions and developments that precede this universally disliked attribute of Androgenetic Alopecia? The hair experts are keen to make relevant studies and detect the causes as that will help in the treatment for hair loss.
Baldness Resulting From Hair Follicle Sensitivity
The androgen sensitivity of hair follicles is different in different parts of the body. The scalp hair follicles are supersensitive to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

The reason behind this difference in Androgen sensitivity is the presence or absence and number of Androgen Receptors.
The hormones act on the dermal papilla cells at the base of the hair follicle via the dermal papilla cells' androgen receptors. Androgen receptors are present in higher concentration in pubic hair follicle dermal papilla cells than in other types of hair follicle. They are also present, but in a lower concentration in the beard hair follicle dermal papilla cells. And they are present in an even lower number in scalp hair follicle dermal papilla cells. This partially explains why the hair follicles behave differently to the androgens in the different areas.
Baldness Resulting From Enzyme Activity
Androgenetic alopecia is largely caused by dihydrotestosterone binding to androgen receptors. DHT is a relatively unstable androgen that is created from testosterone by enzymes. Five alpha reductase is the enzyme that converts testosterone to DHT. If there is more 5 alpha reductase activity then more DHT is produced. This in turn may increase the androgenetic alopecia. There are also other enzymes that can convert other types of androgens like DHEA into testosterone. So the more of these enzymes that are present the more testosterone is available for conversion to DHT by 5 alpha reductase.
Baldness Resulting From A Lack Of Androgen Antagonists
The body produces molecules that can counteract the activity of androgens. Androgen activity has to be regulated so that it doesn’t go out of control and the body does this with various regulatory molecules that constrain androgen action. Estrogens are indirectly antagonists of androgens. More estrogen generally decreases androgen action. For women, if there is low estrogen present in their body, then androgens are more able to exert an effect. In addition, a molecule called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a direct regulator of androgen action. SHBG binds to testosterone and SHBG bound testosterone cannot bind to androgen receptors. So the more SHBG present, the less free testosterone there is in the body. If the testosterone is not free of SHBG then it cannot bind to androgen receptors and activate the cells.
Baldness Resulting From O Low Metabolism Of Androgens
Hormones and other molecular signals get borken down, or metabolized, sooner or later. A high metabolism of androgen hormones means there is effectively less available to interact with androgen receptors. Conversely, a low metabolism of androgens means the androgen molecules hang around for longer and have more opportunity to bind to androgen receptors. So a low metabolism of androgens can be a cause of increased androgen activity.
Baldness Resulting From Excess Androgen Levels Among Women
What is the result of excess testosterone or other androgens like dihydroepiandosterone (DHEA) among women?

The very fine body hairs will turn into coarse, dark hairs on the abdomen. The latter grows towards the navel. And it also grows on the face in a mustache pattern. And there will be balding if such women have predisposition to baldness.
Relation with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Inheritance
Researchers have confirmed a male susceptibility phenotype in the brothers of women with PCOS. It comprises of elevations in circulating DHEAS levels.

The researchers also conducted a hormone profile study of premature balding. They measured the plasma concentrations of total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, epitestosterone and related metabolites. And they noticed significant frequency of subnormal values in balding men. It indicates a resemblance - to some extent - between the hormonal pattern of men and women with premature balding and PCOS.

Can there be balding without a genetic predisposition?
Yes, that is very much possible. It will happen if the blood testosterone levels are extremely high resulting from an ovarian or adrenal gland tumor.